District Profile

Major farming systems/enterprises (based on the analysis made by the KVK)

Farming system/enterprise

  1. Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
  2. Agriculture, Horticulture and Animal Husbandry

Description of Agro-climatic Zone & major agro ecological situations (based on soil and topography):

District Etawah is a part of alluvial tract but its physical features vary considerably determined by the rivers across it. On the basis of natural characteristics, district Etawah is divided in three natural group’s viz. Pachar, Ghar and Par.

Agro-climatic Zone: South-Western Plain

Characteristics:

  1. Soil types-Alluvial, calcareous clay, saline, alkaline
  2. Rainfall 712 mm.
  3. Thrust areas-salt tolerant varieties required, wilt and pod borer control, Introduction of HYV and use of Bio-fertilizers.
  4. Intensive irrigated farming.
  5. Intensive use of cultivable land, multiple cropping.
  6. Reclamation and management of saline, alkaline land and animal husbandry.

Description of Agro-climatic Zone & major agro ecological situations (based on soil and topography):

District Etawah is a part of alluvial tract but its physical features vary considerably determined by the rivers across it. On the basis of natural characteristics, district Etawah is divided in three natural group’s viz. Pachar, Ghar and Par.

Agro ecological situation: Pachar Region (Bharthana & Takha)

Characteristics:

Northern portion of district Etawah is separated by river Senger, called pachar. It presents a level expansion of upland surface broken by sandy ridges of three rivers, Pandu, Arind and Rind and its tributaries i.e. Ahneya and Puraha. Soil is fertile and loam, clay or loamy clay in nature with ussar patchs. Jhils are also present in this part.

Ghar region (Jaswant Nagar, Safai, Maheva and Basrehar)

Characteristics:

Ghar is situated Between river Senger and Yamuna. Soils of this area is light red, fertile and sandy. Clays loam soils are also visible with ussar patchs. In this part ground rises into hillocks of sand and bhur. Most of the cultivable area is irrigated with lower Ganga canal and its branches. Area is less density populated and village sites are smaller than Pachar.

Par Patti Region (Chakarnagar and Barhpura)

Characteristics:

This area is situated between Yamuna and Chambal is called par. Soils of this area are sandy, loam, loamy sand, clay and loam clay. Clay is full of holes and fissures like black soil of Bundelkhand. White sandy Kachhar soils are also visible on the bank of Yamuna. Jamunapari goat and Bhadawari buffaloes are prime genetic natural resource of this area.

Soil Types:

1. Loam, Clay and Loamy clay (Pachar)

Characteristics

Yamuna mixed allurivm (Type 5)

These are dark grey loam to clay loam soils forming small to medium fissures on drying resembling black soils of Bundelkhand. They are mildly alkaline and impregnated with ferromanganese concretions up to 2 mm. diameter. The basaltic alluvium of Yamuna is often overlain on Gangetic alluvium or vice-versa, constituting double-story profiles with marked lithological discontinuity. Taxonomically, they key out as vertic ustrochrepts. These soils are located in south of river Yamuna as small patches in Etawah.

Sengar flats (type 2B)

These are grey to ashgrey soils having loam to silt loam surface and underlain by clay loam and silty clay loam subsoils. The illuviation of clay is marked by the presence of agrillans on horizontal as well as vertical ped faced. They are mildly Ito moderately alkaline and Calcerous specially at low depths. These are quite productive and cover major pat of the District in the tract lying north east of river Sengar.

Sengar flats Holomorphic (Type 2A)

They are grey to dark grey, silty loam to loam soil undertain by compact, sticky and plastic subsoils and calcic or occasionally petrocalcic horizons from 120 to 180 cm soils depth. They are moderately to strongly and very strongly alkaline soils having moderately high amounts of water soluble salts comprizing mainly of CO3=, and HCO3 of Na+ with small amounts of Cl=, SO4=, CA++, Mg++ and K+. The surface horizon has fine to medium, moderate, platy structure with common, medium vesicular pores. The sub soils have moderate to strong, medium prismatic structure breaking into subangular blocks. The hydraulic conductivity is very poor. Taxonomically, these soils keyout as typic natrustalfs, Aquic Natrustalfs, Typic natraqualfs and petrocaleic natrustalfs. The soils are studded as small to large user patches with in Sengar flats mostly in Etawah.

Area (ha): 56158.00

2. Light Red, Sandy, Ussar and Clay Loam (Ghar)

Characteristics

Yamuna uplands sandy (Type 3A)

These are pale brown to light yellowish brown sandy loam soils with brownish yellow to yellowish brown sandy loam sub soils with little or no evidence of illuviation. They are mildly to moderately calcerous at lower depths. They are mildly to moderately alkaline, permeable soils with problem of water secarcity due to low water table. Taxonomically, these soils are classified as typic ustochoceptes. They are located in areas lying between the river Sengar and Yamuna and Chambal and Yamuna.

Recent alluvium. (Type 1)

These are light grey to light brownish grey sandy loam to silt loam soils throughout the pedon depth, being neutral to moderately alkaline. The irregular distribution of organic matter content with depth and litho logical discontinuities characterized by widely differing coarse sand/fine sand ratios suggest the young and flaevial character of these soils. They are dounf in narrow strips of low and plains. Subject annual inundation of river Yamuna in Etawah. Taxonomically, these soils key out as ustifluvents.

Area (ha): 1,10,127.00

3. Sandy, Loam, Loamy Sand, Clay and Loamy Clay (Par)

Characteristics

Yamuna low lands (Type 4)

They are grey to very dark grey loam to clay loam soils at the surface with silty clay loam to clayey sub surfaces. They have fine to medium, distinct reddish brown mottles in the sub soil chroma (2). They are neutral, form soluble salt menace but have severe drainage problems. Talxonomically, they keyout as typic ochraqualfs and aeric ochraqualfs. They are located with in Sengar flats as small patches constitute only a small fraction of the soils of the district.

Yamuna uplands loamy (Type 3B)

These soils are greyish brown to yellowish brown, sandy to loam soils with some what heavier sub soils enincing illuviation of clay, sesquioxides and occasionally lime. They are neutral to moderately alkaline, moderately permeable and fertile soils. Talxonomically, they key out as ustochrepts and typic Haplustalfs. They are located in areas adjoining type 3A.

Yamuna uplands sandy (Type 3A)

These are pale brown to light yellowish brown sandy loam soils with brownish yellow to yellowish brown sandy loam sub soils with little or no evidence of illuviation. They are mildly to moderately calcerous at lower depths. They are mildly to moderately alkaline, permeable soils with problem of water secarcity due to low water table. They are located in areas lying between the river Sengar and Yamuna and Chambal and Yamuna.

Area (ha): 79,095.00

Area, Production and Productivity of major crops cultivated in the district (2014-15)

Kharif

S.N. Crop Area (ha) Production (Qtl) Productivity (Qtl /ha)
1 Paddy 50571 136997 27.09
2 Maize 4171 8167 19.57
3 Bajra 36586 73399 20.06
4 Urd 1362 868-9 6.38
5 Til 1496 159 1.06
6 Pigeonpea 2632 4277 16.25
7 Moong 110 47 4.24
8 Groundnut 70 70 10.00

Rabi

S.N. Crop Area (ha) Production (Qtl) Productivity (Qtl /ha)
1 Wheat 94132 354123 37.62
2 Mustard 11434 134056 11.72
3 Gram 3650 6309 17.71
4 Pea 1651 3309 21.20
5 Potato 8676 220587 254.25

Zaid

S.N. Crop Area (ha) Production (Qtl) Productivity (Qtl /ha)
1 Groundnut 17568 30269 17.23
2 Moong 20343 13080 6.43
3 Bajra 11140 18826 16.90
4 Maize 1496 2902 19.40

Production and productivity of livestock, Poultry, Fisheries etc. in the district

Category Population Production Productivity
Cattle
Cow
Crossbred 1596 16488 10.6
Indigenous 46854 210843 4.50
Buffalo 92649 435450 4.70
Sheep
Crossbred - - -
Indigenous 13885 - -
Goats 224250 - -
Pigs 632 - -
Crossbred 16903 - -
Indigenous 114520 - -
Rabbits
Poultry
Desi 38011 - -
Improved 9042 - -
Fish 32.22 (Area) 54.00q. -